Types of Hajj (Pilgrimage)

  1. Types of Hajj
    • intention to do hajj and umrah separately
    • hajj is done first until end of state of ihram. Umrah is then done followed by tahallul
  2. Tamattu’
    • umrah is done first followed by tahallul to end state of ihram
    • ihram is worn again on 9 Zulhijjah for wuquf in Arafah until hajj is completed
    • “Dam” (penalty) is imposed
  3. Qiran
    • hajj is done together with umrah
    • ihram is worn for the whole duration
    • after wearing ihram, do tawaf, sa’i followed by wuquf in Arafah etc
    • end with tahallul

Conditions that makes hajj obligatory

  1. Muslim
  2. Sane
  3. Puberty
  4. Freedom (not a slave)
  5. Can afford to go to hajj
    • can afford to complete it personally
    • can afford to ask someone to go on his/her behalf but unable to go personally because of old age or illnesses etc

Conditions for validity of hajj

  1. Muslim
  2. Mumayyiz (reached the age of discretion)
  3. State of ihram during miqat zamani. Miqat zamani for hajj is Shawal, Zulkaedah an 10 days of Zulhijjah
  4. To complete all mandatory integrals (rukun) of hajj

What nullifies hajj?

  1. Sexual intercourse
    • Wajib to perform the following:
      • completing the mandatory integrals
      • re-doing the hajj as soon as possible e.g. the following year
      • To do kaffarah (penalty) by slaughtering a camel, cow or 7 goats / sheep, or feeding the poor in the Sacred Precinct with the equivalent value. If not affordable
      • fasting one day for ever 0.51 litre of food the equivalent of a camel with the intention of kaffarah
      • Kaffarah is only for male
  2. Expiry of period for hajj i.e. fajr 10th Zulhijjah
  3. Leaving the fold of Islam

Mandatory integrals of hajj

  1. intention of wearing ihram for hajj
  2. wuquf (stopping) in Arafah from noon 9 Zulhijjah to fajr 10 Zulhijjah
  3. tawaf (circumbulating) the kaabah 7 times
  4. sa’i (travelling to and fro) 7 times from Safa hill to Marwah hill
  5. tahallul (shaving or cutting at least 3 strands of hair)
  6. done in the sequence of the above


  1. Miqat zamani
    • period for hajj is Shawal, Zulkaedah and first 10 days of Zulhijjah
    • make the intention during this period
  2. Miqat makani
    • boundary around Makkah where one must be in the state of ihram before entering the boundary

Integrals of Umrah

Mandatory integrals of umrah is similar to hajj except there is no wuquf in Arafah.

Obligatory Actions of Hajj

Recommended acts of hajj

  1. Taking a shower before wearing ihram
  2. Pray 2 rakaat before wearing ihram
  3. Saying the talbiyah after wearing ihram
  4. Making du’a after talbiyah
  5. Performing the tawaf qudum (welcome tawaf)
  6. Kissing the hajarul aswad (black stone) or waving at it
  7. Touching (not kissing) or waving the Yemeni corner
  8. Doing zikr and du’a during tawaf
  9. Pray 2 rakaat after tawaf
  10. Drinking zamzam water after the recommended tawaf prayer
  11. Entering the Kaabah if given the opportunity
  12. Spending a night at Mina on 9 Zulhijjah
  13. Be in Arafah a few minutes after sunset
  14. Be in Muzdalifah until fajr of 10th Zulhijjah

Things Unlawful During Hajj

Omissions During Hajj

Expiation (Dam)

Types of expiation

  1. Types of expiation
    • expiation when a sometging wajib was not performed
      • Performing hajj tamattu’
      • Performing hajj Qiran
      • Did not wear ihram from miqat
      • Did not do the throwing at jamrah
      • Did not stay overnight at Muzdalifah
      • Did not stay overnight at Mina
      • Did not do tawaf wada’
    • expiation is:
      • to slaughter a goat / sheep, or one-seventh of cow or camel
      • otherwise to fast for 10 days (3 days during hajj and 7 days on returning home)
  2. Mukhayyar and muqaddar
    • Penalty when doing forbidden acts during ihram
      • cutting the hair (at least 3 strands)
      • cutting finger or toe nails
    • expiation is:
      • to slaughter a goat / sheep
      • or to fast for 3 days
      • or to give sadaqah of staple food to 6 poor people
  3. Mukhayyar and mu’addal
    • expiation because of:
      • Cutting plants
      • Hunting
    • expiation is:
      • slaughter at the Sacred Precinct a similar animal that was hunted 
      • or buying grain/cereals equivalent to the animal for distribution to the poor in the Sacred Precinct or if the animal is unavailable
        • feeding people
        • fasting
  4. Murattab and mu’addal
    • expiation when facing obstacles in performing hajj after wearing the ihram
    • expiation  is:
      • slaughtering a goat / sheep at place of obstacle or if unaffordable
      • feeding people to the estimated value of the goat / sheep or
      • to fast one day for every 0.51 litre of food
  5. Murattab and mu’addal
    • expiation when one had sexual intercourse
    • expiation is:
      • slaughter a cow. If unaffordable
      • slaughter 7 goats / sheep. If unaffordable
      • buying food the equivalent of a camel to feed the poor in the Sacred Precinct. If unaffordable
      • fasting one day of every 0.51 litre of food