Prayer

Types of prayers

A. Obligatory prayers

  1. Subh
  2. Zuhr
  3. Asr
  4. Maghrib
  5. Isha’

B. Recommended (Sunnah) Prayers

Nafl has the same meaning as sunnah, mandub and mustahab.

Sunnah prayers are divided into:

  1. sunnah prayers that are not recommended to be done in congregation
    • prayers that are associated with obligatory prayers
    • sunnah that are muakkad
      • 2 rakaat before subh
      • 2 rakaat before zuhr
      • 2 rakaat after zuhr
      • 2 rakaat after maghrib
      • 2 rakaat after isha’
    • sunnah that are not muakkad
      • 2 rakaat before zuhr, in addition to the muakkad prayer
      • 2 rakaat after zuhr, in addition to the muakkad prayer
      • 2 + 2 rakaat before asr
      • 2 rakaat before maghrib
      • 2 rakaat before isha
    • prayers that are not associated with obligatory prayers
      • tahiyyatul masjid
      • witr
      • qiyamullail (called tahajjud if after sleep)
      • dhuha
      • istikharah
      • sunnah mutlaq (sunnah prayers without any name)
  2. sunnah prayers that are done in congregation
    • both eid prayers
    • tarawih
    • solar eclipse
    • lunar eclipse
    • istisqa’ (asking for rain)

The Times of Prescribed Prayers


Conditions Obligating Prayer


Conditions for prayer to be valid

  1. Purity
    • free from hadath
    • free from najis
    • clothes are free from najis
    • place is free from najis
  2. Knowing it is within the period for the prayer
  3. Clothing the nakedness (awrah)
    • Awrah for man is from navel to knees
    • Awrah for woman is all except the face and hands
  4. Facing the qiblat

Mandatory integrals (rukun) for prayers

  1. Intention
  2. Standing up for those who are able
  3. Takbiratul ihram. Saying Allahu akbar
  4. Reciting surah al-Fatihah
  5. Ruku’ (bowing)
  6. I’tidal (rising from ruku’)
  7. Sujud twice in every rakaat
  8. Sitting between two sujuds
  9. Final sitting
  10. Reciting tashahhud in the final sitting
    • Tahiyyat awwal:
      • اَلتَّحِيَّاتُ الْمُبَارَكَاتُ الصَّلَوَاتُ الطَّيِّبَاتُ ِللهِ، السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ اَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ، السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِاللهِ الصَّالِحِيْنَ، أَشْهَدُ اَنْ لآ إِلَهَ إِلاَّاللهُ وَاَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُوْلُ اللهُ، اَللهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى سَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَى آلِ سَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ
    • Tahiyyat akhir:
      • اَلتَّحِيَّاتُ الْمُبَارَكَاتُ الصَّلَوَاتُ الطَّيِّبَاتُ ِللهِ، السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ اَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ، السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِاللهِ الصَّالِحِيْنَ، أَشْهَدُ اَنْ لآ إِلَهَ إِلاَّاللهُ وَاَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُوْلُ اللهُ، اَللهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى سَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَى آلِ سَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ كَمَا صَلَّيْتَ عَلَى سَيِّدِنَا اِبْرَاهِيْمَ وَعَلَى آلِ سَيِّدِنَا اِبْرَاهِيْمَ وَبَارِكْ عَلَى سَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَى آلِ سَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ كَمَا بَرَكْتَ عَلَى سَيِّدِنَا اِبْرَاهِيْمَ وَعَلَى آلِ سَيِّدِنَا اِبْرَاهِيْمَ فِى الْعَالَمِيْنَ إِنَّكَ حَمِيْدٌ مَجِيْدٌ
  11. Salawat on the Prophet p.b.u.h. (see tahiyyat akhir above)
  12. First salam
  13. Doing in the sequence of the above
  14. Tama’ninah (pause between movements)

Recommended acts (sunnah) during prayers

This is divided into 2 categories:

  1. Sunnah ab’ad. If the acts were not done, they the forgetfulness prostration (sujud sahw) can be performed
    • First tashahhud
    • Salawat upon the Prophet pbuh after the first tashahhud
    • Sitting to recite the first tashahhud
    • Salawat upon the Prophet pbuh on the final tashahhud (mandatory integral)
    • Reciting qunut after i’tidal in the second rakaat of subh prayer or the last rakaat of witr prayer in the second half of Ramadan
      • اَللّهُمَّ اهْدِنِىْ فِيْمَنْ هَدَيْتَ وَعَافِنِى فِيْمَنْ عَافَيْتَ وَتَوَلَّنِىْ فِيْمَنْ تَوَلَّيْتَ وَبَارِكْ لِىْ فِيْمَا اَعْطَيْتَ وَقِنِيْ شَرَّمَا قَضَيْتَ فَاِ نَّكَ تَقْضِىْ وَلاَ يُقْضَى عَلَيْكَ وَاِ نَّهُ لاَ يَذِلُّ مَنْ وَالَيْتَ وَلاَ يَعِزُّ مَنْ عَادَيْتَ تَبَارَكْتَ رَبَّنَا وَتَعَالَيْتَ فَلَكَ الْحَمْدُ عَلَى مَا قَضَيْتَ وَاَسْتَغْفِرُكَ وَاَتُوْبُ اِلَيْكَ وَصَلَّى اللهُ عَلَى سَيِّدَنَا مُحَمَّدٍ النَّبِيِّ اْلاُمِّيِّ وَعَلَى آلِهِ وَصَحْبِهِ وَسَلَّمَ
  2.  Sunnah hai’at. Sunnah hai’at. If the acts were not done, it is not necessary to perform the forgetfulness prostration
    • Raising the hands during takbiratul ihram
    • Putting the right hand over the left hand whilst standing
    • Look at the spot for prostration
    • To recite du’a iftitah
      • اَللهُ أَكْبَرُ كَبِيْرًا وَالْحَمْدُ ِللهِ كَثِيْرًا وَسُبْحَانَ اللهِ بُكْرَةً وَأَصِيْلاً.  وَجَّهْتُ وَجْهِيَ لِلَّذِيْ فَطَرَالسَّمَاوَاتِ وَاْلأَرْضَ حَنِيْفًا مُسْلِمًا وَمَا أَنَا مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِيْنَ. إِنَّ صَلاَتِيْ وَنُسُكِيْ وَمَحْيَايَ وَمَمَاتِيْ ِللهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِيْنَ. لاَشَرِيْكَ لَهُ وَبِذلِكَ أُمِرْتُ وَأَنَا مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِيْ
    • To recite al-isti’azah أَعُوذُ بِاللَّهِ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ after du’a iftitah
    • Recite aloud at appropriate instances
      • both rakaat of subh prayer
      • first 2 rakaats of maghrib and isha’ prayers
      • Friday prayer
      • Both eid prayers
      • Lunar eclipse prayer
      • Prayer to ask for rain
      • Tarawih and witr prayers during Ramadan
    • To say “amin” at the end of surah al-Fatihah
    • To recite verses of Quran after al-Fatihah (only on first 2 rakaats)
    • Saying the takbir before doing the next mandatory integral (rukun)
    • Recite the tasbih during bowing
      • سُبْحَانَ رَبِّىَ الْعَظِيمِ وَبِحَمْدِهِ
    • Recite the tasbih prostration
      • سُبْحَانَ رَبِّىَ الْأَعْلَى وَبِحَمْدِ
    • Placing both hands on the thighs during sitting for first and last tashahhud
    • Sitting tawarruk during the last tashahhud and sitting iftirash at other sittings.
      • tawarruk: sitting on the left buttock, right foot upright and left foot under right leg
      • iftirash: sitting on the left ankle, right foot upright
    • Recite salawat Ibrahimiyah after the final tashahhud
    • Second salam
    • Focus during prayer

Offensive (makruh) acts during prayers

  1. To turn the head for no valid reason
  2. Looking upwards
  3. To gather clothes or hair with the hand
  4. Praying when food have been served and thinking about the food
  5. Praying while there is a need to go to urinate or defaecate
  6. Praying when too sleepy

Nullification of prayer

  1. Speaking
  2. Excessive movement e.g. movement of arms 3 times in a row
  3. Najis on body or clothes
  4. Uncovering of the nakedness (awrah)
  5. Eating and drinking
  6. Entering the state of hadath before the first salam
  7. Obvious laughing, crying, moaning
  8. Intention to stop the prayer
  9. Facing the opposite of qiblah